Complex Lie Group Properties

Today we’ll do two more properties of compact complex Lie groups. The property we’ve already done is that they are always abelian groups. We go back to the notation from before and let X be a compact complex Lie group and V=T_eX.

Property 1: X is abelian.

Property 2: X is a complex torus.

Proposition: exp: \mathcal{L}(X)\simeq V\to X, the exponential map, is a surjective homomorphism with kernel a lattice.

Proof: Fix x,y\in X. Note that the map \psi: \mathbb{C}\to X by t\mapsto (exp(tx))(exp(ty)) is holomorphic since it is the composition of multiplication (holomorphic by being a Lie group) and the fact that \phi_x(t)= exp(tx) which was checked to be holomorphic two posts ago. This is a homomorphism since X is abelian.

Note that d\psi_0\left(\frac{\partial}{\partial t}\Big|_0\right)=x+y. By the uniqueness property of flows and exp just being a flow, t\mapsto exp(tz) is the unique map with the property that the differential maps \frac{\partial}{\partial t}\Big|_0\mapsto z. Thus \psi(t)=exp(t(x+y)). Let t=1 and we get exp(x)exp(y)=exp(x+y). i.e. exp is a homomorphism.

Just as before, since X is connected and exp maps onto a neighborhood of the origin, the image is all of X. Let U=ker(exp). We also saw two posts ago that there is a neighborhood of zero on which exp is a diffeo and in particular is injective. Thus the U is a discrete subgroup of V. But the only discrete subgroups of a vector space are lattices. This proves the proposition.

Corollary: X is a complex torus.

Proof: We can holomorphically pass to the quotient and hence get a holomorphic isomorphism of groups V/U\simeq X.

Property 3: As a group X is divisible and the n-torsion is isomorphic to (\mathbb{Z}/n\mathbb{Z})^{2g} (recall that g=dim_\mathbb{C}(X)).

Proof: By property 2 we have that as a real Lie group X\simeq (\mathbb{R}/\mathbb{Z})^{2g}=(S^1)^{2g}. This proves both parts of property 3.

This is a good stopping point, since next time we’ll start thinking about the cohomology of X.


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